You will find these terms used throughout the Cost of Injury Report 2021.

All-terrain vehicle (ATV), snowmobile

All-terrain vehicle is a motor vehicle of special design to enable it to negotiate rough or soft terrain or snow. This category includes hovercraft on land or swamp and snowmobiles and excludes hovercraft on open water.

Costs per outcome

Costs per each outcome category: death, hospitalization, emergency department visit or disability. Costs per outcome are calculated for total, direct and indirect costs, as well as by age group and sex.

Cost per capita

Cost per person in Canada. Costs per capita are calculated for total, direct and indirect costs, as well as by age group and sex.

Direct cost

Costs to the healthcare system, composed of all the goods and services consumed by a person treated for an injury, such as medical supplies, diagnostic imaging, and drugs, used for the diagnosis, treatment, continuing care, rehabilitation, and terminal care. In this report, direct costs include ambulance transportation, emergency care costs, hospital care costs, physician services fees and rehabilitation costs. Formal caregiving provided by paid workers and organizations is included in direct costs.


In this report, disability refers to permanent partial and permanent total disability combined. Permanent partial disability is “a condition that results in a permanent disability from which partial recovery is anticipated, along with a return to some form of employment. Complete loss of earning power is expected prior to recovery, after which the worker is expected to return to employment with wages below pre-injury wages” (Miller et al., 1995, p.26). Permanent total disability is “a condition equivalent to complete and permanent loss of earning power” (Miller et al., 1995, p.26).

Indirect cost

The losses to societal productivity, which account for the injured individual’s inability to perform their major activities and contribute to society. The value (cost) of time lost from work due to morbidity, disability, and premature mortality is measured by earnings data. Informal caregiving provided by family, friends and neighbours is included in indirect costs.

Inflicted injury

Injury that is inflicted directly by another person (e.g., violence) or self-inflicted (e.g., self-harm, suicide).

Pedal cycle

Any land transport vehicle operated solely by pedals, including bicycles and tricycles. Excludes motorized bicycles and motorcycles. Motorcycles are considered motor vehicles.


Any person involved in a transport incident who was not at the time of the incident riding in or on a motor vehicle, railway train, streetcar or animal-drawn or other vehicle, or on a pedal cycle or animal. Includes a person who is on foot, using a pedestrian conveyance (e.g., wheelchair, stroller, push-cart, sled, ice-skates), changing the wheel of a vehicle or making adjustment to the motor of a vehicle.

Potential years of life lost (PYLL)

A measure of premature mortality, presented as the total number of years not lived by an individual who died before average life expectancy (age 75). For example, a person who died at age 25 would add 50 years to the national PYLL total. Specifically, PYLL emphasizes the loss of potential contribution that younger individuals can make to society and draws attention to the causes of death that affect younger populations.

Rate per 100,000 population

This is the number of cases in a given population expressed per 100,000 individuals. Rates per 100,000 population are calculated by age group and sex.

Total cost

The total cost obtained when direct and indirect costs are added together.

Transport incident

Any incident involving a device designed primarily for, or being used at the time primarily for, conveying persons or goods from one place to another. This includes both motorized and non-motorized devices, such as bicycles, motor vehicles, watercraft and aircraft.

Undetermined intent

An injury that cannot be classified as either unintentional or inflicted because “available information is insufficient to enable a medical or legal authority to make a distinction” (CIHI, 2015).

Unintentional injury

An injury that occurs without planning or intent, even if negligence is present (e.g., motor vehicle crash, fall, burn).